Universal Indicator Paper


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    Use this little book of litmus papers to test acidity and alkalinity of water, covering pH1 to 11. Variations in pH will affect the success of reproducing colours. The pH can be altered by adding a small amount of soda ash to make the water more alkaline or adding vinegar to make it more acidic. The pH is especially important when dyeing with safflower and other natural dyes

    In paper making, acid content degrades the quality of the paper. The higher the acid content, the quicker the paper fades and curls. If the pH is known while making paper, the paper could be made with a lower acid content so a higher quality paper is produced. In pulping, it is desirable to have a high bleaching effect. The rate of bleaching is dependent on the pH balance so determining the pH is very important in the pulping process as well.